DEF is a clear, non-toxic, non-flammable, and nonhazardous organic compound consisting of 32.5% urea and 67.5% de-ionized water that requires no special handling.
To achieve the nitrogen oxide (NOX) levels required by the EPA 2010 standard, most engine manufacturers are utilizing Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems that require the addition of DEF. Off-road engines will be impacted by similar emission standards which began in 2014.
Consumption rates vary but are usually around 5% of diesel fuel consumed. IT can be expected that 5 litres of DEF fluid will be used for every 100 litres of diesel fuel.
DEF can be stored at temperatures of between 12°F (-11°C) and 86°F (30°C) for a maximum of 12 months. Shelf life deteriorates to 6 months when temperatures are held at a constant 95°F (35°C) or higher.